It was difficult to select, from a far larger set, the particular firms and examples presented in Natural Capitalism. Selection was based solely on substantive and pedagogic merit; no firm asked or paid to be mentioned. Nonetheless, since we are writing from our experience, much of it gained by working with and for companies mentioned in this book, it seems proper to declare that interest by listing our personal and institutional private-sector clienteles (omitting our larger public-sector and non-profit clienteles) during the past decade, ranging from one-day engagements to long-term consulting or research relationships. In listing the companies, no endorsement is implied or given, either from us or by the companies. In alphabetical order, these include: Aerovironment, American Development Group, Arthur D. Little, Ashland Chemical, Aspen Ski Co., Atlantic Electric, AT&T, Baxter, Bayernwerk, Bechtel, Ben & Jerry's, Bosal, Boston Consulting Group, Boston Edison, BP, Calvert, Carrier div. of UTC, Cesar Pelli, CH2M Hill, Ciba-Geigy, Citicorp, Collins & Aikman, ComEd, Continental Office, Daimler-Chrysler, Datafusion, Delphi, Diamonex, Dow Chemical, Emmett Realty, Esprit de Corps, First Chicago Building, Florida P&L, General Mills, GM, Gensler, Global Business Network, Grand Wailea Resort, Herman Miller, Hexcel, Hines, Honda, Hong Kong Electric, HP, IBM, Imagine Foods, Interface, Landis & Gyr, Levi Strauss & Co., Lockheed Martin, Michelin, Minnesota Power, Mitsubishi Electric, Mitsubishi Motor Sales America, Monsanto, Motorola, Nike, Nissan, Nokia, Norsk Hydro, Northface, NYSE&G, Odwalla, Ontario Hydro, OG&E, Osaka Gas, Patagonia, PG&E, PGE, Phillips Petroleum, Prince div. of Johnson Controls, Rieter, Royal Dutch/Shell, Sage J.B. Goodman Properties, Schott Glas, Schweizer, SDG&E, Searle, Shearson Lehmann Amex, STMicroelectronics, Stonyfield Farms, Sun Microsystems, Sun [Oil], Swiss Bank Corp./UBS, UniDev, Unipart, US West, Volvo, VW, Xerox, and Zoltek. Some of these companies have generously aided this research with data and insights, but no proprietary data have been used here. For this assistance, and for the help of their pioneering managers and practitioners, the authors are grateful.
Our research and work were partly supported by grants from the Surdna, Columbia, Geraldine R. Dodge, MacArthur, Energy, Joyce, Aria, William and Flora Hewlett, Sun Hill, Charles Stewart Mott, Turner, and Goldman foundations, as well as the Educational Foundation of America, Environmental Protection Agency, G.A.G. Charitable Corporation, Merck Family Fund, J. M. Kaplan Fund, and Wallace Global Fund. Our appreciation for this support extends far beyond the publication of this book. These and other funders are investing in the preservation and restoration of the life on this planet, and are leaders all.
A similar debt is owed to hundreds of other colleagues, researchers, and reviewers. Much of the underlying research was done by the staff of Rocky Mountain Institute. Chapter 2 reports the work of RMI's Hypercar Center: Mike Brylawski, Dave Cramer, Jonathan Fox-Rubin, Timothy Moore, Dave Taggart, and Brett Williams. Chapter 5 summarizes the experience of RMI's Green Development Services, chiefly Bill Browning, Huston Eubank, Alexis Karolides, and Jen Seal-Uncapher, and of the ACT 2 experiment cosponsored by Pacific Gas and Electric Co., Natural Resources Defense Council, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Chapter 9 (fiber) draws heavily on a Yale master's thesis by Chris Lotspeich and on outside collaborators in RMI's Systems Group on Forests, notably Dana Meadows, Jim Bowyer, Eric Brownstein, Jason Clay, Sue Hall, and Peter Warshall. Chapter 10 (agriculture) owes much to RMI director Dana Jackson and adviser Allan Savory. Chapter 11 relies on numerous studies by RMI water researchers Scott Chaplin, Richard Pinkham, and Bob Wilkinson. Much of the reported energy-efficiency work builds on the definitive research by RMI's COMPETITEK group, spun out in 1992 from RMI to its subsidiary E SOURCE, led then by Michael Shepard and now by Jim Newcomb. Chapter 14 could not have been written without the work and help of Jonas Rabinovitch, and was informed by the writings of Bill McKibben and the insights of RMI's Economic Renewal efforts led by Michael Kinsley. Many of the lean-clean-and-green concepts reported here were identified early by Joe Romm, who wrote Lean and Clean Management (1994) as an RMI researcher. We have relied frequently on the essential publications of our friends at Worldwatch Institute. And of course the godfather of our resource-productivity work is the lead author of Factor Four, now a member of the German Bundestag, the extraordinary Ernst von Weizsäcker.
We want especially to acknowledge Herman Daly, whose pioneering work in ecological economics provided the basis for the thesis of this work. His seminal contributions to a truly integrated economics discipline are made all the more remarkable by his modesty and humility. Equal acknowledgment for her extraordinary contributions to understanding our society and environment as a system we extend to Dana Meadows. Her wisdom and balance are a touchstone to us and many others. Much of what we've learned comes from other outstanding practitioners and teachers, many of whom were also reviewers of the manuscript. They include Rebecca Adamson, Jan Agri, Abigail Alling, Mohamed El-Ashry, Bob Ayres, J. Baldwin, Spencer Beebe, Janine Benyus, Wendell Berry, Paul Bierman-Lytle, Dick Bourne, Peter Bradford, Michael Braungart, Chip Bupp, Jody Butterfield, Ralph Cavanagh, Nancy Clanton, John Clarke, Jim Clarkson, Gordon Conway, Mike and Judy Corbett, Robert Costanza, Peter Coyote, Robert Cumberford, Mike Curzan, Gretchen Daily, Joan Davis, Steve DeCanio, Murray Duffin, Paul and Anne Ehrlich, John Elkington, Don Falk, Chris Flavin, Peter Forbes, Greg Franta, Ashok Gadgil, Thomas Gladwin, Peter Gleick, Jose Goldemberg, David Goldstein, Robert Goodland, Tom Graedel, Sue Hall, Ted Halstead, Stuart Hart, Randy Hayes, Allen Hershkowitz, Buzz Holling, John Holmberg, Wes Jackson, Dan Jones, Thomas B. Johansson, Joel Jamison, Greg Kats, Phillipp Kauffman, Yoichi Kaya, Byron Kennard, Tachi Kiuchi, Florentin Krause, Jonathan Lash, Eng Lock Lee, Nick Lenssen, Jaime Lerner, Paul MacCready, Bob Massie, Gil Masters, William McDonough, Dennis Meadows, Niels Meyer, Norman Myers, Steve Nadel, Jon Olaf Nelson, Jørgen Nørgard, Joan Ogden, Ron Perkins, John Picard, Amulya Reddy, Bob Repetto, Karl-Henrik Robèrt, Tina Robinson, Jim Rogers, Dan Roos, Art Rosenfeld, Marc Ross, Peter Rumsey, Wolfgang Sachs, Yasushi Santo, Robert Sardinsky, Anjali Sastry, Jan Schilham, Bio Schmidt-Bleek, Steve Schneider, Peter Schwartz, Floyd Segel, Sarah Severn, Ed Skloot, Rob Socolow, Jim Souby, Walter Stahel, Maurice Strong, David Suzuki, Nickolas Themelis, Sandy Thomas, Andy Tobias, John and Nancy Jack Todd, Michael Totten, Haruki Tsuchiya, Christine von Weizsäcker, Stuart White, Bob Williams, Daniel Yergin, Susumu Yoda, and Vlatko Zagar.
Included in this group are a smaller group of reviewersAlan AtKisson, Dave Brower, Fritjof Capra, Diana Cohn, Robert Day, Christopher Juniper, Fran and David Korten, Scott McVay, David Orr, Peter Raven, Bill Rees, Peter Senge, Frank Tugwell, Joanna Underwood, Sarah Van Gelder, Mathis Wackernagel, Peter Warshall, Jim Womack, and otherswho provided exceptionally thoughtful critiques which greatly improved the book and for which we are both grateful and beholden. We are also hugely indebted to Bio Schmidt-Bleek and his pioneering work in resource productivity. His leadership has propelled the subject to the very top of the environmental agenda in Europe and richly informs this work. A very special mention goes to architect Tom Bender who was proposing the possibility of Factor Ten productivity in the early 1970s in the magazine RAIN, heard then by only a few, now echoed back in this and other works to many. Special thanks to Ray Anderson, Chairman of Interface, for his support and leadership, as well as his innovative colleagues including Charlie Eitel, Mike Bertolucci, Jim Hartzfeld, and John McIntosh, who are creating perhaps the best archetypal firm so far of the next industrial revolution.
Vital research support came from, among others, RMI's Dan Bakal, Jennifer Constable, Rick Heede, Ross Jacobs, Dan LeBlanc, André Lehmann, Louis Saletan, Auden Schendler, and Kipchoge Spencer, and from Paul Hawken's assistantsKelly Costa, Andre Heinz, and Jeanne Trombly; special thanks also to Paul's associates at The Natural Step who were extraordinarily helpful and generous: Catherine Gray, Jill Rosenblum, John Hagen, Dane Nichols, Kate Fish, Karl-Henrik Robèrt, and Ed Skloot. Kerry Tremaine provided key insights and help in an early draft of a magazine article that preceded the book. We are also grateful for graphics help to Ema Tibbetts, for editorial counsel to Norm Clasen, Dave Reed, and Farley Sheldon, and for logistical support to JoAnn Glassier, Marty Hagen, Ruth Klock, Chad Laurent, Lisa Linden, Robert Noiles, Jennifer Schwager, and Marilyn Wien.
A special thank-you also to the following individuals whose contributions to this book cannot be easily summarized or acknowledged, but surpass expectations and generosity: Michael Baldwin, Jennifer Beckman, Maniko Dadigan, Cindy Roberts, Reed Slatkin, and Roz Zander. Ultimately, it is the editor who brings a work to life and the public. For his endurance, patience, and skill, we thank Rick Kot of Little, Brown. His belief in this work and its implications was invaluable. Many of the facts, ideas, and lessons in this book have come from these hundreds of collaborators. Our interpretations, and any mistakes that eluded detection, remain our sole responsibility. Readers who point out errors and omissions, and who add even better stories and ways to tell them, will earn our special thanks and the gratitude of all who labor to build further on these foundations.